American psychologist, 52 4 , Bakker, A. Burnout and work engagement: The JD—R approach. Hobfoll, S. Conservation of resources in the organizational context: The reality of resources and their consequences. Fredrickson, B. The role of positive emotions in positive psychology: The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. American psychologist, 56 3 , Tsuji, H. Patrick Lewis and Alastair Noyce Do you move around a lot during your sleep?
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Or have you lost your sense of smell? Here are four of the most common ones. But many people might not even recognise that their sense of smell is bad. It is important to remember that there lots of reasons why any one, or combination, of these changes might happen. John Frean Every death from malaria is a tragedy. But many infections can be prevented. This is particularly true for holidaymakers, travellers, or people visiting their families in malaria endemic areas. All they need to do is follow some very simple rules.
If the basics of prevention are followed, a great deal of unnecessary illness and mortality can be avoided. Avoidance to detection A is for Awareness and Avoidance of malaria risk Several factors influence your chance of getting malaria in a particular area. Understanding these can help you to avoid or least minimise the risk. The first question to ask is: how much malaria normally occurs in the area, and when? The answer will depend on altitude and climate — generally the lower, warmer and more humid the place, the more suitable it is for malaria vectors, the Anopheles mosquitoes.
In southern Africa, most malaria is seasonal. Longer exposure, involving overnight stays, puts you at higher risk than brief visits, for example day trips to game reserves. Hiking and camping outdoors is riskier than staying in air-conditioned accommodation. Some people are at higher risk for severe malaria and should ideally avoid malaria transmission areas altogether.
B is for mosquito bites — and avoiding them Avoiding mosquito bites is the most important preventive measure. This is because the mosquito bite is what transmits the parasite. No bite, no transmission.
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Mosquitoes actively seek people out. There are a number of ways to avoid mosquito bites. These include staying indoors between dusk and dawn and covering up bare skin when outside at night. Mosquitoes find ankles particularly attractive. There are also a number of repellents and insecticides that can deter mosquitoes.
Repellents should be applied to bare skin, and clothes can be treated. Other ways to avoid being bitten include burning mosquito coils or using heated insecticide mats in living and sleeping areas at night, and using insecticide-treated mosquito nets. Using ceiling fans and air conditioners discourages mosquito activity indoors, likewise making sure screens on windows are closed and in good condition.
C is for Chemoprophylaxis and Compliance You should consult a health care practitioner with travel medicine experience well before travelling to an endemic malaria area. Several factors will influence this decision. There are two type of medications used for malaria prophylaxis, they act at different life stages of the parasite in the body.
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Atovaquone-proguanil products stop infection early, soon after the mosquito bite. Prophylactic medications are highly effective if taken properly. But the infection may take longer to show if compliance is poor and doses are missed or prematurely stopped.
If you get ill with flu-like symptoms such as headache, fever, chills, joint and muscle pains up to three months after returning from a malaria area, be sure to mention this to your health care providers. One clue to malaria here is a low platelet count. This is often picked up accidentally when tests are being done for a feverish illness with no obvious cause.
To wrap it up A number of steps are key to ensuring a quick recovery. These are: reporting the illness early after travelling in a malaria area; prompt diagnosis; and, finally, early and effective treatment.
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If any of these steps are delayed the chances of developing severe and complicated malaria are much higher — and the rate of survival substantially …. How do you choose the best type of exercise? And do you need a health check before you start? Overcoming barriers to exercise Motivation Understanding the effect a sedentary lifestyle has on your health often hits home only after a serious event such as hearing bad news from your doctor. Surviving a serious illness as a result of an inactive lifestyle, such as a heart attack or stroke, can also be frightening enough to provide a great deal of motivation.
Then you need to keep motivated enough to stick with your exercise program. You can track your training or fitness level and set some achievable goals to keep going. Lack of time Finding the time and effort to fit exercise into your daily routine is challenging. One way to get around these barriers might be to attend a group exercise session or join a sports club.
If you find exercise boring, you can encourage a friend to join you or join an exercise group to make it enjoyable. If you played sport in your youth, that might provide an option. Having a friend to exercise with or team mates to support you gives a sense of commitment so that you have to be there and will be challenged if you fail to show up.
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There are many YouTube videos of safe routines that you can follow and adjust as you get fitter. One for example a 15 minute cardio exercise routine that you can do at home. And rather than improving muscle strength with weights at the gym, you can fill milk bottles with water instead. But it gets easier You might be thinking about starting aerobic exercise like the cardio workout above, or walking, jogging, swimming or cycling. All need oxygen to provide energy over several minutes or longer. When we perform aerobic exercise, our heart rate increases along with our breathing rate and depth.
This is because this type of exercise requires oxygen to provide energy to keep going.
When we are not used to this type of exercise our body is inefficient at using the oxygen we breathe to generate energy for our skeletal muscles. But if we keep exercising regularly, our bodies become more efficient at using oxygen and we become better at generating enough energy for our muscles to work. This increases the energy they can supply to the muscles, exercising becomes easier and we recover faster from each session.
Yes, it can be a big challenge, but aerobic exercise gets easier over time as the body gets used to providing the energy it needs. Thinking of yoga or simple stretches? Stretching and other moves improve flexibility and strength. Yoga also emphasises breathing and relaxation through meditation. Yoga, like other forms of exercise, will be challenging to begin with. But it does get easier over the weeks as your body adapts. So, it is important to be persistent and make the exercise part of your routine with at least three sessions of up to one hour every week. At the start, you may get sore muscles.
While this can be uncomfortable, the soreness goes away after about a week. You can reduce this soreness by starting with low intensity and building gradually over the first month. Once your muscles become used to the new movements, the soreness will be minimal as you progress.
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